A Key to the Abbreviation System for Authorities’ Names According to the Muta’akhkhirin

A Key to the Abbreviation System for Authorities’ Names According to the Muta’akhkhirin

One studying the works of the Shafi’i School’s later authorities will often find reference made to other scholars by a mere abbreviation. The following is a key to abbreviations commonly found:

عطية الله بن عطية البرهاني القاهري الأجهوري

أ ج Sh. Atiyyat Allah b. Atiyyah al-Burhani al-Qahiri al-Ujhuri (d. 1190) commented on Ibn al-Qasim al-Ghazzi. Also, he commented on Khatib’s Iqna’ under the title Fath al-Latif al-Mujib bi Ma Yata’allaqu bi Kitab Iqna’ al-Khatib. (Iqna’ is Khatib Shirbini’s commentary on Qadi Abu Shuja’s Ghayat al-Ikhtisar).

محمد بن منصور الإطفيحي

 أط or  أط فSh. Muhammad b. Mansur al-Itfihi (1032-1110) commented on Shaykh al-Islam’s Fath al-Wahhab.

برهان الدين إبراهيم بن محمد بن أحمد الباجوري أو البيجوري

با ج Sh. Burhan al-Din Ibrahim b. Muhammad b. Ahmad al-Bajuri or al-Bayjuri (1198-1277) was Shaykh al-Azhar and a Shafi’i faqih. He commented on Ibn al-Qasim al-Ghazzi.

سليمان بن محمد بن عمر البجيرمي

ب ج Sh. Sulayman b. Muhammad b. Umar al-Bujayrami (1131-1221) was an Egyptian faqih, born in the western Egyptian city of Bujayrm, he relocated to Cairo while still young. There, he studied at al-Azhar University. He authored al-Tajrid li Naf’ al-‘Abid which is a commentary on Fath al-Wahhab and Tuhfat al-Habib which is a commentary on Iqna’.

إبراهيم بن محمد البرماوي الأنصاري الأزهري

ب ر Sh. Ibrahim b. Muhammad al-Birmawi al-Ansari al-Azhari (d. 1106) commented on Ibn al-Qasim al-Ghazzi, which was published in 1287. It was published again in 1298, with the marginal notes of Muhammad al-Anbabi. Also, he commented on Fath al-Wahhab in two volumes, which has not been published. A manuscript of that work is located in Dar al-Kutub al-Misriyyah. He studied with Muhammad al-Shawbari and Sultan al-Mazzahi.

شهاب الدين أحمد بن محمد بن علي بن حجر الهيتمي الأنصاري

ح ج Sh. Shihab al-Din Ahmad b. Muhammad b. ‘Ali b. Hajar al-Haytami al-Ansari (909-974) wrote Tuhfat al-Muhtaj Sharh al-Minhaj, Fath al-Jawwad, al-Imdad Sharh al-Irshad, his Fatawa, al-I’ab Sharh al-‘Ubab, al-Minhaj al-Qawim, Ashraf al-Wasa’il, al-Fath al-Mubin, al-Minah al-Makkiyyah, al-Zawajir, and other valuable works. There are two collections of fatawa ascribed to Ibn Hajar, one under the title al-Fatawa al-Kubra al-Fiqhiyyah, published by Dar al-Fikr and others in four volumes. Also, there is one under the title al-Fatawa al-Hadithiyyah, published by Dar al-Fikr and others in a single volume.

شمس الدين محمد بن أحمد الشوبري

شوبري Sh. Shams al-Din Muhammad b. Ahmad al-Shawbari (977-1069) was born in the western Egyptian city of Shawbar. He studied at al-Azhar University and passed away in Cairo.

Khidar al-Shawbari is mentioned to feature with his name abbreviated by خ ض or خضر. He was one of Zayyadi’s students. He authored a commentary on Fath al-Wahhab and another on Sharh al-Tahrir.

محمد بن سالم الحفني أو الحفناوي

ح ف  Sh. Shams al-Din Muhammad b. Salim al-Hafni or al-Hafnawi (1101-1181) wrote a hashiyah on Suyuti’s al-Jami’ al-Saghir and Bulaq printed it in two volumes in 1290. Also, he wrote a hashiyah on Ibn Hajar’s Sharh al-Hamziyyah which was printed in the margins of al-Minah al-Makkiyyah. He studied at al-Azhar University and eventually became Shaykh al-Azhar.

نور الدين علي بن إبراهيم بن أحمد الحلبي ثم القاهري

ح ل Sh. Abu al-Faraj Nur al-Din ‘Ali b. Ibrahim b. Ahmad al-Halabi al-Qahiri (975-1044) commented on Fath al-Wahhab and on Mahalli’s Sharh al-Waraqat.

عبد الحميد الشرواني الداغستاني

حميد  or  عيد Sh. Abd al-Hamid b. Husayn al-Sharwani al-Daghastani al-Makki (d. 1301) commented on Ibn Hajar’s Tuhfat al-Muhtaj.

شمس الدين محمد بن محمد الخطيب الشربيني

خ ط Shams al-Din Muhammad b. Muhammad al-Khatib al-Shirbini (d. 977) commented on Ghayat al-Ikhtisar under the title al-Iqna’. Also, he commented on Shirazi’s Tanbih, and Imam Nawawi’s Minhaj al-Talibin under the title Mughni al-Muhtaj. He was a direct student of both Shaykh al-Islam Zakariyya al-Ansari and Shihab al-Dunya wa al-Din al-Ramli al-Kabir.

نور الدين علي بن يحيى الزيادي المصري

ز ي Sh. Nur al-Din Ali b. Yahya al-Zayyadi al-Misri (d. 1024) commented on both Fath al-Wahhab and Muharrar.

أبو العزائم سلطان بن أحمد بن سلامة بن إسماعيل المزاحي المصري

س ل Sh. Abu al-Aza’im Sultan b. Ahmad b. Salamah b. Ismail al-Mazzahi al-Misri (985-1075) commented on Fath al-Wahhab. Manuscript copies are lodged in the Dar al-Kutub al-Misriyyah.

شهاب الدين أحمد بن قاسم الصباغ العبادي المصري

سم Sh. Shihab al-Din Ahmad b. al-Qasim al-Sabbagh al-‘Abbadi al-Misri (d. 993) took from ‘Amirah. He authored al-Ayat al-Bayyinat which is a commentary on Sharh Jam’ al-Jawami’, a commentary on Imam al-Haramayn’s Waraqat, a commentary on Ibn Hajar’s Tuhfat al-Muhtaj, a commentary on Fath al-Wahhab, and Fath al-Ghaffar which is a commentary on Ghayat al-Ikhtisar. He passed away in Medina returning from Hajj.

عبد الله بن حجازي الشرقاوي الأزهري

ش ق Sh. Abd Allah b. Hijazi al-Sharqawi al-Azhari (1150-1227) memorized the Quran in his hometown before he set off to study at al-Azhar University. He became Shaykh al-Azhar in the year 1208. He wrote al-Tuhfat al-Bahiyyah fi Tabaqat al-Shafiyyah, a commentary on Sharh al-Tahrir, and Tuhfat al-Nazirin fi man Walla Misr min al-Wulat wa al-Salatin.

منصور الطبلاوي بن ناصر الدين محمد بن سالم الطبلاوي

طب Sh. Mansur b. (d. 1014) Sh. Nasir al-Din Muhammad b. Salim al-Tablawi (d. 966) authored Tajrid Hashiyat Ibn al-Qasim ala al-Tuhfah. He took fiqh from Ramli, sat in the company of Ibn al-Qasim al-‘Abbadi, and then Muhammad al-Shawbari took from him. And Nasir al-Din al-Tablawi authored a commentaries on al-Bahjat al-Wardiyyah, on ‘Abd al-Ghaffar al-Qazwini’s al-Hawi al-Saghir, and on Imam al-Haramayn’s Waraqat.

نور الدين علي بن علي الشبراملسي

ع ش Sh. Nur al-Din ‘Ali b. ‘Ali al-Shabramallisi (997-1087) hailed from the Egyptian city of Shabramallis. Even though he lost his eyesight as an infant, he still studied and taught at al-Azhar University. He authored commentaries on Ramli’s Nihayat al-Muhtaj, on Ibn Hajar’s Ashraf al-Wasa’il, on Ibn al-Qasim al-Ghazzi, and on Nihayat al-Sul.

شمس الدين محمد بن داود بن سليمان العناني

ع ن Sh. Shams al-Din Muhammad b. Dawud b. Sulayman al-‘Inani (d. 1098) authored Fath al-Karim al-Wahhab ala Sharh Tanqih al-Lubab and Hashiyat ala Umdat al-Rabih fi Marifat al-Tariq al-Wadih. Kattani mentioned that he took from ‘Ali al-Halabi who took from Ramli.

شهاب الدين أحمد بن أحمد بن سلامة القليوبي

ق ل Sh. Shihab al-Din Ahmad b. Ahmad b. Salamah al-Qalyubi (d. 1069) wrote commentaries on Sh. Jalal al-Din al-Mahalli’s Sharh Minhaj al-Talibin, on Sharh al-Tahrir, and on Ibn al-Qasim al-Ghazzi. Also, he authored a treatise under the title al-Hidayah min al-Dalalah on determining both the times and direction for prayers. He took both fiqh and hadith from Muhammad al-Ramli and sat in his company for three years. He also took from Zayyadi and ‘Ali al-Halabi. Ibrahim al-Birmawi took from him.

أبو الإقبال حسن بن علي بن أحمد المنطاوي الأزهري المدابغي

م د Sh. Abu al-Iqbal Hasan b. Ali b. Ahmad al-Mintawi al-Azhari al-Madabighi (d. 1170) wrote a commentary on Iqna’ under the title  Kifayat al-Labib, a commentary on Jam’ al-Jawami’, a commentary on Sharh al-Tahrir, a commentary on Abu al-Hasan al-Shadhili’s Hizb al-Bahr, a commentary on Ibn Hajar’s al-Fath al-Mubin which was printed in Cairo in 1307, and other works. In Taj al-‘Urus, it is mentioned that he lived a very long life [mu’ammar] and was sought after for having a high chain of transmission [‘uluw al-isnad].

شمس الدين محمد بن أحمد بن حمزة الرملي الشهير بالشافعي الصغير

م ر Sh. Shams al-Din Muhammad b. Ahmad b. Hamzah al-Ramli (d. 1007) is also known as “al-Shafi’i al-Saghir.” In Shafi’i fiqh, he wrote Umdat al-Rabih, Ghayat al-Bayan Sharh Zubad Ibn Ruslan, and Nihayat al-Muhtaj Sharh al-Minhaj.

شهاب الدين أحمد بن حمز الرملي الكبير

الشهاب م ر Sh. Shihab al-Din Ahmad b. Hamzah al-Ramli al-Kabir (d. 973) commented on Ibn al-Imad’s Manzumah under the title Fath al-Jawwad and on Ibn Ruslan’s Zubad under the title Fath al-Rahman. There is also a compilation of his Fatawa related to have been transmitted by his son, Shams al-Din. In Shadharat al-Dhahab, Ibn al-‘Imad related that Khatib Shirbini compiled a collection of Shihab’s Fatawa. Perhaps, Shihab’s Fatawa was compiled by Khatib, and thereafter transmitted by Shams al-Din al-Ramli.

And Allah knows best.

Yaqub Abdurrahman

Imam Nawawi and the Hierarchy of his Works

al-Imam al-Nawawi loved knowledge since his youth. He memorized the Qur’an early on and then travelled to Damascus so that he could benefit from the major Shafi’i jurists and traditionists. He moved between their gatherings of religious learning, gaining proficiency in hadith and its sciences, mastering jurisprudence and its application, while also gaining much in other Islamic sciences. Accomplishing all this, he never travelled outside the Levant, except to perform Hajj. Even so, his status manifested distinctly amongst the Shafi’i jurists of his time, from east to west, without divagation. During his era, he was the acuminous instigator of an in-depth expansion of the copious literature of the School, his insights being meticulously accurate. The stepping-stone that gave him such a standing, along with his corpulent effort in re-examination of the School, stemmed from the efforts of al-Imam Abu al-Qasim ‘Abd al-Karim al-Rafi’i (Allah be pleased with him).

As such, al-Imam al-Nawawi authored many books. Rawdat al-Talibin is a summarization of al-Imam al-Rafi’i’s noble book, Sharh al-Wajiz (nicknamed al-Sharh al-Kabir). Likewise, al-Imam al-Nawawi wrote Minhaj al-Talibin, a summarization of al-Imam al-Rafi’i’s al-Muharrar. His al-Majmu’ is an encyclopedic work commenting on Abu Is-haq al-Shirazi’s al-Muhadhdhab; however, he passed away before completing it. Al-Tahqiq was meant to be a summary of al-Majmu’, but was not finished before his passing. Along with these, he also commented on al-Imam al-Ghazzali’s al-Wasit, under the title al-Tanqih. He gave a complete commentary on Sahih Muslim [the authentic hadith compilation of al-Imam Muslim b. al-Hajjaj al-Qushayri].

These augmented other works that he most graciously penned, constituting the totality of his efforts. He systematically extricated the agglomerate of inter-school jurisprudential differences and elucidated preponderant viewpoints pertaining to the School’s foremost legal verdicts. He openly disclosed his approach to this unequivocally unfettered exactification in the introductions to his books; the climax of this disclosure peaked in his priceless introduction of al-Majmu’ Sharh al-Muhadhdhab. These represent his authority in re-examination and verification.

Complementing these innumerable feats, al-Imam al-Nawawi also wrote in the other Islamic sciences, notably the field of hadith. His penetrating comprehension and understanding manifest through the aggrandizement of his works. As well, he was a pious ascetic who lived completely occupied with gathering, dispensing, and preserving religious knowledge. He was known in his time for commanding the good and forbidding the evil. al-Imam al-Nawawi passed in his home city, Nawa, in the year 682 A.H., in the 45th year of his life. May Allah be pleased with him, us, and you. Allah blessed him in his time and life with knowledge. After his passing, all of the places in the world where the sun shines imbibed benefit from the fountain of knowledge he left.

In instances where al-Imam al-Nawawi’s opinions differ, they are considered in light of the sequence of his works, as follows. Below is a general guide:

1. Kitab al-Tahqiq.

2. al-Majmu’ Sharh al-Muhadhdhab.

3. al-Tanqih Sharh al-Wasit.

(al-Imam al-Nawawi did not complete these first three)

4. Rawdat al-Talibin.

5. Minhaj al-Talibin.

6. His Fatawa.

7. Sharh Sahih Muslim.

8. Tas-hih al-Tanbih.

And Allah knows best.

Yaqub Abdurrahman